Location : Home-based with travel to selected countries
Application Deadline : 18-Jul-12
Type of Contract : Individual Contract
Post Level : International Consultant
Languages Required : English French
Starting Date : 01-Aug-2012
(date when the selected candidate is expected to start)
Expected Duration of Assignment : approx. 50 days over 3 months
Over the last fifteeen years, the United Nations has continued to support national disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration (DDR) efforts, with the Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) taking the lead on disarmament and demobilisation and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) being heavily involved in reintegration. UNDP has been involved in DDR since the early 1990s, and currently provides technical and advisory country level assistance to DDR initiatives in 15 priority countries with a major focus on 9 key countries. Furthemore, UNDP’s engagement is in cutting edge policy development and knowledge management as exempliefid through its leading contributions to the Integrated DDR Standards (IDDRS). It plays a critical role in supporting UNDP’s delivery on its mandate and in facilitating coordination with other United Nations (UN) departments and agencies, critically DPKO and Department of Political Affairs (DPA), but also United Nations Peace Building Support Office (PBSO), International Labour Organization (ILO), United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), UN Women, and United Nations Populations Fund (UNFPA). UNDP also works closely with bi-lateral donors and the World Bank. Additionally, UNDP/BCPR ensures the required regional perspective to DDR programming by addressing critical cross-border issues and other regional specific issues.
UNDP is involved in reintegration in three contexts where it operates in different capacities. These include: 1) peacekeeping contexts (Côte d’Ivoire and Democratic Republic of Congo Sudan and South Sudan), where UNDP takes the lead in reintegration and is closely cooperating with DPKO:- 2) contexts with special political missions (Central Africa Republic) where UNDP is in the lead of all elements of DDR process that includes resource mobilization, operations and programme development, implementation and support to national stakeholders, and; 3) contexts with no missions on the ground, where UNDP plays a lead role in providing support to the local governments with respect to DDR and related processes. In these different contexts, UNDP’s BCPR/Livelihoods and Recovery Group is critical in providing support to UNDP country offices that include operational and programme support, as well as policy guidance and knowledge management.
In the last six years, the United Nations completed reintegration programmes in five countries (Afghanistan, Kosovo, Liberia, Niger and Timor-Leste), that provided reintegration support to approximately 200,000 participants. At the same time, the United Nations increased its support to on-going reintegration processes in seven countries and territories (Aceh, Burundi, Central Africa Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo, Haiti, Somalia and Sudan). As for critical missions, UNDP has been involved in Sudan (by supporting economic and community recovery initiatives targeting reintegration of Comprehesive Peace Agreement era caseload); Comoros (primarliy on the guiding pillars of reintegrating of former militias in the army); creating linkages between the reintegration of ex-combatants and the absorption of large numbers of ex-combatants into the security services as has been the case in Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Kosovo. Linkages between reintegration of ex-combatants and track based employment programmes begun in Burundi and Côte d’Ivoire, and are planned for finalization in Liberia and Nepal. While in some contexts, there has been a shift from providing individual ex-combatants reinsertion packages alone to initiatives that support community-driven and/or area based development programmes.
Following the development of Integrated Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration Standards (IDDRS) operational guide, it has been possible to provide better direction and guidance to different actors engaged in preparing, implementing and supporting DDR programmes. Since 2005, based on the IDDRS, it became clearer how to determine entrance of candidates into DDR programmes for women, children, persons associated with ex-combatants and people with disabilities. This has been possible through the support of the Inter-Agency Working Group on DDR that worked from 2008 to 2010 to strengthen the reintegration guidance in the Integrated Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration Standards in collaboration with practitioners from United Nations (UN) departments, agencies, funds and programmes, national commissions and other national authorities, donors and relevant international non-governmental organizations. Additionally, the UN Policy of 2008 on Early Recovery provided a very important tool that has elaborated further the role of UN agencies on reintegration.
On programming, the Multi-Year/Country programmes have contributed better to results in rentegration of ex-combantants. One such example could be the World Bank experienceon Multi-Country Demobilization and Reintegration Programme, that was an attempt to address DDR regionally in the greater Great Lakes region of Africa until when it closed in 2009. The Program brought together 43 partners, including seven country Governments, 13 donors, 11 United Nations entities, a number of regional organizations and numerous non-governmental organizations. This programme later on progressed into Transitional Demobilization and Reintegration Programme (TDRP). In addition, other community based initiatives have contributed to local initiatives that bring about results at the community level. This has been done through innovative approaches which included community security and community recovery initiatives in the DDR arena. Recent changes in paradigm shift on DDR front have been brought about through DPKO study published in January 2010, entitled “Second Generation Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR) Practices in Peace Operations”.
Purpose of the Evaluation
The purpose of this evaluation is to assess the results, achievements, challenges and lessons learned from implementation of UNDP’s reintegration intervention in seven countries where UNDP has on-going or transition DDR programmes. It will also give an opportunity to generate findings and recommendations expected to assist in identifying appropriate strategies and operational approaches to strengthen UNDP’s programming on reintegration in peace-keeping and non-peace keeping contexts. This evaluation will interrogate sustainability of reintegration initiatives through political, social-cultural and economic livelihoods dimensions with aim to finding out approaches to effectively apply in monitoring reintegration initiatives implemented in support of ex-combatants and associated members.
Scope and Objectives of the Evaluation
The evaluation will cover reintegration activities for the last 6 years (2006-2012) in seven countries. During this period, there has been an increase in disarmament, demobilization and reintegration provisions within the mandates of special political missions, including the United Nations Integrated Office in Burundi (BINUB), which carried forward the DDR programme started under its peacekeeping predecessor, the United Nations Operation in Burundi (ONUB). Additionally, the United Nations Political Office for Somalia (UNPOS) was mandated to provide support on DDR. Also, following the 2007 Security Council the United Nations-African Union Hybrid operation in Darfur (UNAMID) was established. The mission was mandated to support early and effective implementation of the Darfur Peace Agreement. Other missions include United Nations Mission in the Sudan (UNMIS), the United Nations Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO) and the United Nations Operation in Côte d’Ivoire (UNOCI).
Given the varied contexts UNDP is operating in, DDR should be seen as a component of a much larger recovery and peace building strategy with a focus on national and community stabilisation. For this reason, it has become prudent that an evaluation is undertaken to undertand the extent to which reintegration has been successful especially consideraring its importance in transforming ex-combatants and associated members to civilian life. Furthermore, alot of resources are committed to support reintegration work in the 9 Key countries where UNDP is working. For instance, the total funding received for reintegration during 2010 was approximately $265 million, sourced from bilateral and multilateral voluntary contributions. It is for this reasons, UNDP will commission an evaluation to assess the sustainability of reintegration benefits to ex-combatants and progression of these programmes into long-term development. The evaluation will be undertaken in seven countries (Burundi, Cote d’Ivore, DRC, Kosovo, Nepal, Somalia and Sudan) under the following specific objectives:
- Investigate further what constitutes reintegration in peace-keeping and special political missions.
Examine, define or redefine the theory of change implicit in the design of the reintegration programmes, and how much was realised.
- Identify, assess and strengthen the typology of programming that were implemented within the framework of reintegration.
- Identify the relationship/convergence/integration between the reintegration programmes and other programmes implemented by the CO and missions.
- Review overall lessons learned, challenges and best practices from the disarmament, demobilization and reintegration phases of DDR programmes. In particular special attention will be given to:
a) Identification of critical sustainable and relevant political reintegration benefits at the national and community level;
b) Evidencing of individual benefits to male, female and youth ex-combatants;
c) Identifying and ascertaining sustainable economic and social linkages of reintegration at the national and local level;
d) Existence of requisite community/national ownership, capacity and leadership in the execution of the reintegration programmes;
e) Direct support and social benefits to communities and individual combatants;
f) Modes of decision making on key DDR policies, strategies and technical issues;
g) Community involvement in the reintegration process through diverse mechanisms of community based reintegration and community security;
h) National mechanisms and processes that support sustainable reintegration.
The evaluation will be conducted based on the assessment of DDR programmes’ strategic conception, theory of change, effectiveness, efficiency and sustainability within the framework of guiding questions as outlined below.
- Have the DDR programme’s expected reintegration results been achieved and what was the supporting or impeding factors?
- Were the social, political and economic reintegration approaches, resources, models and conceptual frameworks relevant to achieve intended outcomes and outputs to support the peace process, build national cohesion, increase community stabilisation, community security, armed violence reduction and nation building?
- Have reintegration interventions been implemented with appropriate and effective inter-agency and partnership strategies? What has been the nature and added value of these partnerships?
- Were UNDP’s comparative advantages perceived/interpreted well to contribute to peace and were these reflected in the division of responsibilities in implementing reintegration programmes?
- Have the resources (funds, human resources, time, etc.) of reintegration interventions been efficiently used to achieve the relevant outputs and outcomes?
- Have the reintegration interventions been implemented within intended deadlines and cost estimates?
- What were the strengths and weaknesses of the approaches and strategies utilised by the reintegration interventions?
- Were there any unanticipated events, opportunities or constraints in the peace process, political leadership and local economic growth that contributed to improvement in reintegration of ex-combatants?
- Have associated risks on reintegration at the national and local level been anticipated and addressed?
- Were management capacities of the DDR programme adequate to deliver activities in a timely and efficient manner?
- What measures were taken to assure the quality of development results and management practices, both in relation to process and products, and to partnership strategies in DDR?
- What monitoring and evaluation procedures were applied by UNDP and partners to ensure greater accountability and integration of DDR programming in other development initiatives?
- How was the contribution of reintegration efforts to peace building measures and monitored?
- To what extent was sustainability considerations taken into account in the design and implementation of DDR interventions, results definition and monitoring of reintegration?
- Were exit strategies appropriately defined and implemented, and what steps have been taken to ensure sustainability of results to support inclusive reintegration and livelihood creation for the demobilised combatants and associated members?
- How did the development of partnerships at the global, regional and national level contribute to sustainability of the results on national and community based reintegration?
- Has UNDP been able to help design DDR processes within the context of local and national recovery and other development strategies?
- Have reintegration interventions responded to the needs and priorities identified by governments and UN partners?
- How has UNDP contributed to strengthening national and local capacity development to design and implement reintegration programmes, steps and processes?
- What has been the general effect (both positive and negative) of the reintegration policy, project or programme on the ex-combatants and the associated groups?
- Mention the different forms of impact that can be distinguished: direct and indirect, intended and unintended for ex-combatants and associated members.
- On training offered, what has happened with the knowledge gained in the training initiatives and skills development for ex-combatants and the associated members?
- Did reintegration participants usefully apply their knowledge and use it to further develop/improve their role in society?
- Was there clear evidencing of reintegration results and recognition of the role of UNDP?
Duties and Responsibilities
Organisation of the Evaluation
The evaluation will be conducted by an evaluation team comprised of two members: Evaluation Team Leader, with an overall responsibility for managing this evaluation and coordinating the development and submission of the draft and final evaluation report; and the Evaluation Consultant, who will contribute necessary expertise in the core subject areas of the evaluation, and be responsible for drafting key parts of the report. The Team will work under the direct supervision of DDR Programme Specialist and Evaluation Specialist in UNDP /BCPR New York Headquarters.
A three-phased approach will be adopted in conducting the evaluation:
First phase (Initial briefings/ meetings in New York and desk reviews):
During the first two weeks the Evaluation Team will participate in briefings and meetings in UNDP and other UN agencies based in New York. During this phase, the consultants will also conduct a desk review of relevant project documents and related documentation such as routine monitoring reports, project progress reports, and relevant review and evaluation reports, other analytical studies. The desk review will enable the team to: i) examine the quality of results baselines and indicators established for the projects; ii) assess the adequacy of the response strategies as reflected in the results framework; iii) review the quality of project baselines and indicators as well as existing monitoring mechanisms and resources (financial and human), and iv) conduct an initial assessment of progress towards results and/or impact as reflected in available progress reports.
At the end of the first week of the assignment, the Evaluation Team submit the inception report, describing the methodological/analytical framework for the evaluation and overall timeframe.
The second phase (country visits):
This phase will include work at the country office level for a period of at least one week in each of the countries selected with clear modalities and in-country mission framework discussions. The in-country evaluation will require extensive review of existing documentation with particular attention to evaluations and studies, consultations with senior and operational managers and field staff, as well as consultations/interviews with a sample of beneficiaries. This will also include existing UNDP DDR programme evaluations and comparative studies on reintegration projects involving other donors, geographic area-based projects related to DDR, other evaluation reports and alternative implementation strategies. The Evaluation Team will conduct individual country visits to validate the documentary data against actual results on the ground. The focus will be to triangulate information from documents and interviews by gathering objective data on key achievements and areas for improvement.
The third phase (finalizing reports)
The final and third phase of the evaluation will include report writing, development of the knowledge product on result-based reintegration and dissemination of lessons learned through existing UNDP mechanisms. The report should specifically highlight key lessons learned and good practices that could be replicated in future programs. At the end of country visits, the consultants are expected to present initial findings to the concerned country offices for validation of factual information and findings.
At the onset of the evaluation, the Evaluation Reference Group will be formed to ensure that the evaluation is managed in a participatory manner utilizing the knowledge and experiences of all relevant stakeholders, who played important roles during the DDR programme implementation. The proposed Reference Group may include:
- Bilateral development partners and donors (e.g. World Bank, EU, other donors)
- Regional organizations (any two of the following organisations: AU, African Development Bank, IGAD and Arab League)
- Any three UN agencies working directly on DDR (DPKO, DPA, UNPFA, UNICEF and PBSO)
- International NGOs (International Alert, Mercy Corps’, Saferworld and IKV Pax Christi)
The Reference Group will be involved in all key stages of the evaluation (e.g. review of the inception report, draft evaluation report, and discussions on the findings of the final evaluation report and next steps, etc.)
The evaluation Team will produce the following outputs:
- At the end of the first week of the assignment, the EvaluationTeam will submit the Inception Report describing the Evaluation Team’s understanding of what is being evaluated, the methodological/analytical framework for the evaluation and the proposed schedule of tasks, activities and deliverables, with clear responsibilities for each team member. The inception report should also include the evaluation matrix, showing how each of the evaluation questions will be answered by way: proposed methods, sources of data and data collection procedures.
- At the end of each country mission: The evaluation consultants will prepare a draft country note and share with key partners, country office management and BCPR headquarters.
- Two weeks after the completion of country visits: The Evaluation Team will produce a draft evaluation report, with additional annexes and a power point presentation for use by UNDP and sharing with UN agencies and partners.
Evaluation brief and other knowledge products: At the beginning of October, the evaluation consultant will work with the Livelihoods and Recovery Group (LRG), PPD and Country Support Team to develop a synthesis of lessons learned from evaluated DDR programmes for knowledge sharing on CPR-net, distribution to UNDP country offices, inclusion in the IDDRTG training modules and dissemination to the community of practice on DDR.Ø Before mid-October the evaluation consultant will produce final policy framework on approaches to result –based reintegration.
- Excellent understanding of international development issues and knowledge of the UN system;
- Strong written and verbal communication skills, in a multi-cultural setting; excellent interpersonal skills, objectivity and ability to analyze large multi-country data sets in short period;
- Experience working collaboratively in small teams with tight deadlines.
Required skills and experience:
- Master’s degree (or equivalent) in a relevant field.
- At least 15 years of relevant international development experience with at least 6 years of experience in designing/implementing DDR-related interventions.
- At least 5 years of experience in monitoring and evaluation, including establishing monitoring and evaluation frameworks for crisis prevention and recovery programmes.
- M&E skills and experience in emergency settings and familiarity with CPR related M&E issues (i.e. conflict and gender analysis, conflict sensitivity, ‘do no harm’ principles).
- Some experience in data collection, including use of excel and/or other statistical software for data analysis.
- Familiarity with the UN supported humanitarian action programmes.
- Preferably some experience with UNDP programming processes, especially at the country and regional levels.
Fluency in English and French is required with good verbal and written skills.
UNDP is committed to achieving workforce diversity in terms of gender, nationality and culture. Individuals from minority groups, indigenous groups and persons with disabilities are equally encouraged to apply. All applications will be treated with the strictest confidence.