The U.S. government’s long history of concern with accountability and oversight continues and evolves in new directions. The last two decades have seen an increased interest in outcomes-based performance monitoring and evaluation. Important new legislation, special attention by the administrations of Presidents Bill Clinton and George W. Bush, greater emphasis on transparency and results, and the introduction of initiatives such as the Program Assessment Rating Tool all have brought performance measurement more prominence. Furthermore, President Obama’s administration has introduced additional initiatives addressing performance-based management and promoting program evaluation, so that more advances may be seen. Still, there are a number of ways in which the U.S. government can improve its use of M&E to increase the effectiveness of its programs.